U.S. Army Military History Institute Hessian Resources

The U.S. Army Military History Institute (MHI) has a file that often shows up in search engines as "HESSIANS.DOC." This file, as explained below, is a summary of MHI's holding regarding Hessian troops. However, most search engines have an old address for the file - the new one is http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usamhi/Bibliographies/RefBibs/RevolutinaryWar/.

The file is an Microsoft Word file, but I done a crude translation into HTML, which is below.


U.S. Army Military History Institute
ATTN: Historical Reference Branch
22 Ashburn Drive, Carlisle Barracks
Carlisle, PA 17013-5008
MHI Reference Bibliographies

MHI's Reference Bibliographies, or RefBibs, as they are more commonly known, constitute the most complete summary of MHI's holdings in existence. While primarily focused on the Library holdings of the Institute, there are pointers to the resources of the Archives and Special Collections Branches.

NOTE: These bibliographies are, for the time being, only available as the original MS-Word documents. Please bear with us until we find an appropriate Word-to-HTML converter.

Some of our holdings may be borrowed through interlibrary loan procedures, which you must initiate at your local library. Up to six items at a time may be borrowed for 60 days. (Noncirculating materials include periodicals, manuscripts, books published before 1940, many unit histories, and rare and hard-to-replace books). Please note we are a lender of last resort, which means we do not loan materials that are readily available elsewhere. Our loan service does not extend to overseas patrons unless the request is for U.S. government official business and is initiated at at U.S. government library.

Our photocopying charges are $10.00 for the first ten pages of copying and $.25 for each additional page up to 300 pages per patron per calendar year. Checks or money orders should be made payable to "Defense Accounting Officer", but mailed directly to the Military History Institute at the above address. Residents of other nations should pay in U.S. currency with an international money order or a check that will clear through U.S. banks.


USAMHI RevWar - "Hessians"

dv Aug 88, Dec 94


A Bibliography of MHI Sources

Unit Perspectives.....p.2
Personal Perspectives.....p.2
Prisoners of War.....p.5
Of Related Interest.....p.6


Andrews, Melodie. "'Myrmidons from Abroad': The Role of the German Mercenary in the Coming of American Independence." PhD dss, U of Houston, 1986. 465 p. E268A52.

Atwood, Rodney. The Hessians: Mercenaries from Hessen-Kassel in the American Revolution. Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge U, 1980. 292 p. E268A89.

Eelking, Max von. The German Allied Troops in North American War of Independence, 1776-83. Trans from Ger. Baltimore: Genealogical, 1969. 360 p. E268E262.

Faust, Albert B. The German Element in the United States: With Special Reference to Its Political, Moral, Social, and Educational Influence. Vol I. NY: Houghton Mifflin, 1909. pp. 349-56. E184G3F3v1.

Greene, George W. The German Element in the War of American Independence. NY: Hurd & Houghton, 1875. E269G3G7.

Hessian Documents of the American Revolution. Boston: Hall, 1989. 364 microfiches.
And pub guide.

Hoffman, Elliott W. "The German Soldiers in the American Revolution." PhD dss, U of NH, 1982. 585 p. E268H65.

Kincaid, Frank. "Why the Hessians Deserted: Psywar in 1776." Army 15 (May 1965): pp. 66 & 68. Per.
The Hessians

Kipping, Ernst. The Hessian View of America, 1776-83. Monmouth Beach, NJ: Freneau, 1971. 48 p. E268K49.

Krewson, Margrit B. Von Steuben and the German Contribution to the American Revolution: A Selective Bibliography. Wash, DC: Lib of Cong, 1987. 44 p. Z8842.6K73.
Cites Hessian sources.

Lowell, Edward J. The Hessians and the Other German Auxiliaries of Great Britain in the Revolutionary War. NY: Harper, 1884. 328 p. E268L9.
Also Kennikat Press ed, 1965, (E268L92) and German ed, 1902.

Rosengarten, Joseph G. The German Soldier in the Wars of the United States. Phila: Lippincott, 1890. 298 p. E184G3R82.

Scott, Samuel F. "Foreign Mercenaries, Revolutionary War, and Citizen-Soldiers in the Late Eighteenth Century." War & Soc 2 (Sep 1984): pp. 41-58. Per.

Werthern, Freiherr V. "The Hessian Auxiliaries in North American War of Independence, 1776-83." Trans from Ger, Oct 1902. 33 p. UC15A2no301.
Lecture delivered 23 Nov 1894 in Officer's Club, Hussar Rgt, Hessen-Homburg.


Ewald, Johann. Treatise on Partisan Warfare. Trans/ed by Robert A. Selig & David C. Skaggs. NY: Greenwood, 1991. 177 p. U240E82413.
See pp. 23-29.

Fuller, J.F.C. British Light Infantry in the Eighteenth Century. London: Hutchinson, 1925. 255 p. UA650F8.
See Chap 9.

Katcher, Philip R.N. King George's Army, 1775-83: A Handbook of British, American and German Regiments. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole, 1973. 160 p. E267K372.

Melsheimer, Frederick V. Journal of the Voyage of the Brunswick Auxiliaries from Wolfenbuttel to Quebec. "Morning Chronicle," 1891. 44 p. E268M52.


Baurmeister, Carl L. Revolution in America: Confidential Letters and Journals, 1776-84. Trans from German. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers U, 1957. 640 p. E268B4.
The Hessians

Bennett, Gertrude Ryder. The Hessian Lieutenant Left his Name. Francetown, NH: Golden Quill, 1976. 272 p. PS3503E5473H4.
Ballad of Michael Bach.

Burgoyne, Bruce E. Waldeck Soldiers of the American Revolutionary War. Bowie, MD: Heritage, 1991. 182 p. E268.B88.

Cramer, William S. From Hessian Drummer to Maryland Ironmaker. Booklet, 1985. pp. 23-36. E268 J68.

Doblin, Helga. "The Case of the Musketeer Andreas Hasselmann." Mil Affairs 51 (Apr 1987):
pp. 73-74. Per.
Sentenced to death for desertion, but pardoned at last minute during his execution ceremony. Served with Brunswick troops.

Dohla, Johann C. A Hessian Diary of the American Revolution. Norman: U of OK, 1990. 276 p.
E268 D6413.

Ewald, Johann von. Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal. New Haven: Yale, 1979.
467 p. E268E9213.

Haarman, Albert W. "Contemporary Observations of the Hesse-Cassel Troops Sent to
North America, 1776-81." Jrnl of Soc for Army Hist Res 54 (Aut 1976): pp. 130-34. Per.

Harrington, Edson B. Georg Zacharias Hatstatt, Our German Hessian Ancestor. Booklet, 1985.
pp. 37-45. E268 J68.

Hubbs, Valentine C., ed. Hessian Journals: Unpublished Documents of the American Revolution.
1st ed. Columbia, SC: Camden, 1981. 127 p. E268H47.

Krafft, John C.P. von. Journal of Lieutenant John Charles Philip von Krafft, 1776-84. NY:
NY Times, 1968. 202 p. E268K72.

Letters from America, 1776-79. Trans from Ger. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1924. 281 p. E268P52.

Letters of Brunswick and Hessian Officers During the American Revolution. Trans from Ger. NY: DeCapo, 1970. 258 p. E268S882.

Malsburg, Friedrich von der. Copy of his diary recording service with von Dittfurth Regiment and 1st Hessian Division, Europe and No America, 1776. Arch.

Miles, Lion G. The Hessians of Lewis Miller. Millville, PA: Johannes Schwalm Hist Assoc, 1983. 68 p. E268M55.
Watercolors of York, PA, residents, with brief accounts of their mercenary services.
The Hessians

Pettengill, Ray W. Letters from America, 1776-79; Being Letters of Brunswick, Hessian, and Waldeck Officers with the British Armies During the Revolution. Boston, Houghton, 1924. 281 p. E268P52.

Popp, Stephan. Popp's Journal, 1777-83. Reprint from PA Mag of Hist & Biog, 1902. 29 p. E268P83.

Riedesel, Friederike Charlotte L. Baroness von Riedesel and the American Revolution. Trans from Ger. Chapel Hill: U of NC, 1965. 222 p. E268R523.

. Letters and Journals Relating to the War of the American Revolution, and the Capture of the German Troops at Saratoga. Albany, NY: Munsell, 1867. 235 p. E268R555.

Riedesel, Friedrich A. Letters, Memoirs and Journals of Major General Riedesel, During His Residence in America. 2 vols. Trans from Ger. Albany, NY: Munsell, 1868. E268E264.

Stone, William L. Letters of Brunswick and Hessian Officers During the American Revolution. NY: Da Capo, 1970. 258 p. E268S882.

Tustin, Joseph J. Diary of the American War: A Hessian Journal, Captain Johann Ewald, Field Jager Corps. New Haven, CT: Yale U, 1979. 467 p. E268E9213.

Uhlendorf, Bernhard A., trans and ed. The Siege of Charleston; With an Account of the Province of South Carolina: Diaries and Letters of Hessian Officers from the Von Jungkenn Papers in the William L. Clements Library. Ann Arbor: U of MI, 1938. 445 p. E241C4U52.
Reprinted by Arno Press, 1968.

Waldeck, Philipp. Philipp Waldeck's Diary of the American Revolution. Phila: Amer Germanica Press, 1907. 146 p. E268W15.

Wasmus, J.F. An Eyewitness Account of the American Revolution and New England Life: The Journal of J.F. Wasmus, German Company Surgeon, 1776-83. NY: Greenwood, 1990.

Wiederholdt. Americana Germanica, Tagebuch vom 7 October 1776 bis 7 December 1780. NY: Macmillan, 1902? 93 p. E268W54.
Intro in English, text of diaries in German.


Fahnen und Uniformen der landgraflich Hessen-Kassel' schen Truppen im Amerikanischen Unabh Angigkeitskrieg 1776-83. Kassel: VOGT, 1977. UC485G3 F3.

Haarmann, Albert W. "The Army of Brunswick and the Corps in North America, 1776-77."
Mil Coll & Hist 17 (1964): pp. 76-78. Per.
The Hessians

. "The Hessian Army and the Corps in North America, 1776-1783." Mil Coll & Hist 14 (1962): pp. 69-75. Per.

, and Holst, Donald W. "The Friedrich von Germann Drawings of Troops in the American Revolution." Mil Coll & Hist 17 (1964): pp. 1-9. Per.

Hagen, Wolf von. "Description of the Hesse-Cassel Grenadier 'Helmets' for the Period of the American Revolution." Reproduced copy of unpublished paper. Bass Harbor, ME, 1971.
70 p. UC505G3H3.

Knotel, Richard. Handbuch der Uniformkunde. Hamburg: Schulz, 1937. 440 p. UC480K5.


American Archives. Wash, DC: Clarke & Force, 1837-53. E203A51.
On file: Vols I-VI of Fourth Series and Vols I-III of Fifth Series, covering 1775-76. See indices under "Prisoners."

Barth, Richard C., et al. "The Trenton Prisoner List." Jrnl of the Johannes Schwalm Hist Assn, Inc 3 (no 1, 1985): pp. 1-21. E268J68.

Becker, Laura L. "Prisoners of War in the American Revolution: A Community Perspective."
Mil Aff 46 (Dec 1982): pp. 169-73. Per.
Reading, PA, as prison center.

Bowie, Lucy Leigh. Ancient Barracks at Fredericktown Where Hessian Prisoners Were Quartered During the Revolutionary War. Frederick, MD, 1939. 31 p. E263M3B68.

Dabney, William M. After Saratoga: The Story of the Convention Army. Albuquerque: U of NM, 1954. 90 p. E281D12.

Kipping, Ernst. The Hessian View of America, 1776-83. Monmouth Beach, NJ: Freneau, 1971. pp. 39-46. E268K49.
List of pows hired out in Lancaster county.

Knepper, George W. The Convention Army, 1777-83. PhD dss, U of MI, 1954. 282 p. E267K6.

Linn, John B., & Egle, William H., eds. Pennsylvania Archives. Ser 2. Vol 1. Harrisburg, PA: Hart, 1879. E263P4L75.
See list of pows captured at Trenton, p. 431 ff.

Miles, Lion G. The Winchester Hessian Barracks. Booklet, 1988. 42 p. E281 M54.
The Hessians

U.S. Dept of Navy. Naval Hist Div. Naval Documents of the American Revolution. Vol 5.
Wash, DC: GPO, 1970. E271U583v5.
See pp. 188-90 for Continental Congress report of the committee on prisoners.

Volm, Matthew H. The Hessian Prisoners in the American War of Indepenence and Their Life in Captivity. Charlottesville, VA: n.p., 1937. 27 p. E268V65.

See also:
- "Prisoners in Rev War" (POW-Rev)
- "Convention Army" (POW-Rev)

NOTE: No list of Hessian prisoners at Carlisle has ever been located here.


Agnew, James B. "Washington's Mercenaries." Army 31 (Aug 1981): pp. 50-54. Per.
Notes European officers who served in Continental Army, with profiles of several.

Fetter, Frank W. "Who Were the Foreign Mercenaries of the Declaration of Independence?" PA Mag of Hist & Biog 104 (Oct 1980): pp. 508-13. Per.
Argues that Scotch highlanders should be considered with the Hessians.

Ingrao, Charles. '"Barbarous Strangers': Hessian State and Society During the American Revolution." Amer Hist Rev 87 (Oct 1982): pp. 954-76. Per.

. The Hessian Mercenary State: Ideas, Institutions, and Reform under Frederick II, 1760-85. NY: Cambridge, 1987. 240 p. DD801H57 I53.

Johannes Schwalm Historical Association. Hessian Registry. Booklet, 1985. pp. 73-79. E268 J68.

Jones, George F. "The Black Hessians: Negroes Recruited by the Hessians in South Carolina and Other Colonies." SC Hist Mag 83 (Oct 1982): pp. 287-302. Per.

Rosengarten, Joseph G. Frederick the Great and the United States. Lancaster, PA: Pennsylvania-German Soc, 1906. 29 p. E269G3R8.

Stofft, William A. "An Important Refusal: The Russians Aren't Coming." Mil Rev 55 (Jul 1975): pp. 56-57. Per.
On the British attempt to hire Russian mercenaries in 1775 for service in No Amer.
The Hessians

Taylor, Peter K. "The Household's Most Expendable People: The Draft and Peasant Society in 18th Century Hessen-Kassel." PhD dss, U of IA, 1987. 451 p. E268T39.

_____. "'Patrimonial' Bureaucracy and 'Rational' Policy in Eighteenth-Century Germany: The Case of Hessian Recruitment Reforms, 1762-93." Central Euro Hist 22 (Mar 1989): pp. 33-56. Per.

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